10th of may, 1994 will be written in golden script in the history of south africa. On this day nelson mandela became the first black president of south africa. On this day the country got the chance to be aa part of word community after almost 80 years. The present chapter in is autobiography of nelson mandela. In this chapter there is a glimpse of inauguration ceremony alongwith the memories of past.

The cermony was organised at a beutyfull amphitheater. Representatives from diffrent countries had reached there. Thobo mbeki was sworn as the first vise president . When it was nelson mandela’s turn he sweared the loyality towards the constitution. He devoted himself for the welfare of humanity.

He descussed in his speech the past, the present and the future. He focussed the light on an increadible human disaster which took place in south africa. He pointed toward the apartheid”-a political syestem that separates people according to their race. He promise that he would free his people from all obstructions. He said , ”Never, never again will this baeutiful land will again experince the oppression of one by another.”

Remembring the hitory he wrote that in thte first decade of the twentieth century, a few years after the anglo-boer war the white stinned people of south africa erected a syestem of racial domination against the dark skinned people of there own land. This syestem proved to be a base of one of the most inhumane societies of the world. But this socity had changed forever.

He writes that there is no scarcity of gems in his country but his most precious stones are his own people. He has learnt that absence of fear is not caurage rather the triumph over it. According to him if people are learnt to hate others , they can be learnt to love other also.

Every individual has two types of obligation-one is towards his own family and another is towards his community and nation. Nelson mandela realizes that during the long walk to freedom he had to left behind his family. He remembers that his feeling for freedom was not inherited since childernhood. As soon as he grew older and older became to know that not only he but also the members of his family, his neighbour and his community neither of them were free. now he started his new role as a freedom fighter.


Q-1- Who is ‘I’ in the seond sentense ?

Ans- Nelson mandella. 

Q-2- Pleasntly besieged by digniteries’,what is the meaning of this line ?

Ans- dignnitaries and leaders from various countries were coming to him to pay there respect.

Q-3- Who is being besieged ? 

Ans- Nelson mandela is being besiged.

Q-4- Which word in the passage means ‘a building without roof’ ?

 Ans- Amphitheatere.

Q-5-  what had the south africans achieved ?

Ans- they have achived political frredom.

Q-6-  which words in the first para mean ‘freedom’ ?

Ans- ‘Emancipation’ and ‘Liberty’.

Q-7- Why was it a lovely day ?

Ans- it was a lovely day due to autuman season.

 Q-8- Who was accompanied by his daughtar ? 

Ans- Mr. Nelson mandela was accompained by his daughter.

Q-9- who was with MR. NELSON MANDELA on stage ? 

Ans- Mr. Nalson mandella’ s daughter zenani was on stage with Mr. Mandella.

Q-10- Who swarn in as second deupty president ? 

Ans- Mr. de klark was a first sworn in as secound deupty president.


Q-1- What was being celebreated on 10th may ?

Ans- The inaugration of the instllation of south africa’s first democratic non-racial goverment was being celebrated on 10th may.

Q-2- Who sworn in as first deupty president ? 

Ans- Mr thabo mabeki was sworn in the first deupty president.

Q-3- What else did they want to achieve ?

Ans- They wanted to liberate their people from the bondage of poverty , deprivation,suffring,gender and other disrimination.

Q-4- What do they wish for their country ?

Ans- They wish their country to remain free forever and that no oppresor should rule on them.

Q-5-  What does they expression ‘the sun shall never set’ mean here ?

Ans- It mean the sun of libreaty shall never set, there country should enjoy freedom forever.

Q-6-  What does courage mean to mandela ?

Ans- According to mandela courage is not absinece of fear , but the trimph over it.

Q-7- Which is natural to him : to love or to hate ?

Ans- He think that love comes more naturally to the human heart then hate.

Q-8- Does mandela think the oppresar is free ? why/why not ?

Ans- NO, Mandela does not think so because one who opprese others is too prisoner of hate , prejudice and narrow mindedness . so he cannot be free.

Q-9- Why were two national anthems sung ?

Ans- The two national anthems were sung because the white wanted to give respectto ‘Nkoshi Sikelel-iAfrika’, where as the blacks wanted to the same for ‘Die Steam’ although neither group knew the lyric of the anthem.

Q-10- What does mandela thank the intenational leaders for ?

Ans- Mandela thank the inter national leader for having come to take possesion with the people of his country of what is a common victory for justice,for peace, for human dighnity.


Q-1- At the beginning of his speech , mandela mention ”an extraordianary human disaster .” what does he mean by this ? what does he mean  by this ? what is the ”glorious………human achivment” he speaks of at the end ?

Ans-  He means by this the policy of ‘aparthied’ which is a political system that separates people acording to their race . he speaks of abolition of apartheid in south africa forever , and establishing oof non-racial goverment which is the glorise human ahivment acorrding to him.

Q-2- What did being free mean to mandela as a boy and as a student ? how does he contrast these ”transitory freedoms ” with the basic and honourable freedoms ?

Ans- Bing free as a boy means to mandela doing think such as running in the fields, swimming in the river and riding on the back of slow moving bulls. Being free as student means to mandela to stay out at night, to read what he pleased and go where he chose. He contrast these transitory freedoms with the basic and honourable freedoms by mentioning them. They are to marry and to have a family and to earn his livelihood.”

Q-3- What does mandela mean when he say he is ”simply the some of alll those african patirots” who had gone before him ?

Ans– when he says that he is simply the sum of all those african patriots who had gone before him, he means that he has learnt a lot from those patriots and adopted all the essential qualities of those patriots in order to struggle against the racial government of south africa.

Q-4- How did mandela’s understanding of freedom change with age and experience ?

Ans- mandela was not born with a hunger to be free, but he was born free to run in the fields, free to swim in the clear stream. As soon as he grow up he came to know that his boyhood freedom was an illusion. As a young men he discovered that this freedom had already been taken from him. that he began to hunger for it.

Q-5- Why did such a large number of international leaders attend the inauguration ? what did it signify the triumph of ?

Ans- Such a large number of international leaders attended the inauguration to make the occasion of a installation of south africa’s first democratic non-racial goverment memorable . It signifies the triumph of justice,peace and human dignity.


Updated: July 16, 2023 — 1:10 pm

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