THE SERMON AT BENARES
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER
THE SERMON AT BENARES
Gautama Buddha was born in-563· B.C. in Northern India. He was a prince known as Siddhartha Gautama. At the age of 12 ·he was sent away for schooling to study the Hindu sacred scriptures. He returned after four years and married a princess named Yashodhara.
They had a son. The family was leading a royal life. At the age of twenty five he went out for excursion. Till this period he did not know sufferings. On the way Buddha happened to see a sick man, an aged man, a funeral procession and a monk begging for alms. These sights moved him very much. He immediately decided to become a ascetic and went out to seek enlightenment.
For long seven year buddha went on wendrin here and their and search of enlighment but in vain. At last he set down under a big fig tree and vowe down to stay until enlightement achived. After a period of seven days, enlightment descented upon him . He renamed the tree the bo tree (tree of wishdom ) . Now gautam startedhis teachings and he was known as budha. He preached his first sermon at the city of benares near the holy banks of the river ganges . His sermon is printed an it reflects the buddha s ‘ wisdom.
Once the only son of kissa gautami died. She went to-and-fro with her died child. She requsted for midiciuan but people called that she had lost her senses since the boy was died. At last a man told her to go to sallyamuni,the buddha. saw she saw the buddha and cride ”Lord and my master, gave me the medician they will cure my boy After a deep thought the buddha asked to bring hand fulll of musterd seed. But it must be from that house where no one had died.
Kisa gautami went from house to house for talking the musterd seed. side by side she ask if anyone had died in there family. She found no so much house where some beloved had not died. Gautami became wearly and hompless. She became sad and troubled. She sat down at the way side and saw the flickring lights of the city . At last darkness of the night spread everywhere. She realised that the face of men were like the lights that flickered and extinguished. She thaought , ”How selfish am i in my grif ? Deth is common to all., But there is a path for immorotality if one has surrendered all selfishness.”
The buddha said , ”Our life is breaf . It is mixed with pain. After birth, one has to approch the danger of death. All are sub to death. As ripe fruits are early in the danger of farrliing so moters when born are always in danger of deth.”
”Neather a father nor a kinsman can save the life.We lement deeply but one by one , mortals are carried of like on ox that is led to the slaughter . The world is affected by suffring death and suffringdeath and decy . ther fore it is not wise to grive . We must knoe the treams of the world.”
Through weaping of grieving we can not obtain the peace of mind but our body suffres. We became sick and pale even then the dead are not saved at any cost. We can seek peace by drawing out the arrow of lamination, complaint and grif. One who has drown out this arrow he has became coposed and will obtain piace of mind. Sach a men will be free from sorrow and be blessed.
SHORT QUESTION ANSWER
Q.1- Who is the Prince ?
ANS- Siddartha Gautaina is the Prince.
Q.2- Mention any two sights which moved the Prince ?
ANS- The sights of an aged man and a funeral procession moved the Prince.
Q.3- What did he do after he became enlightened ?
ANS- After he became enlightened, he renamed the tree Bo Tree and began-to teach and share his new understandings.
Q.4- Which word in the passage means the same as ‘a state of high spiritual know ledge’ ?
ANS- The word ‘enlightenment’ means ‘a state of·high spiritual nowledge’.
Q.5- What was the real name of the Buddha ?
Ans. The real name of the Buddha was Siddhartha Gauthama.
Q.6. What did he study in school?
Ans. He studied the Hindu sacred scripture.
Q.7. What he had and how did they live ?
Ans. He had a wife and a son. they lived as befitted royality.
Q.8. What did he see in the way ? Write two points ?
Ans. He saw suffering of the world. he saw a sickman and an aged man.
Q.9. Trace a word that means ‘holy’ ?
Ans. holy = sacred.
Q.10 What was the effect of different sights?
Ans. The different sights moved him very much.
MEDIUM QUESTION : ANSWERS:
Q.1. When her son dies, Kisa Gotami goes from house to house. What does she ask for ? Does she get it ? Why not ?
Ans. When the only son of Kisa Gotami dies, she goes from house to house. She asks them for medicine to save her son’s life. She does not get any medicine. A dead cannot come to senses. The people of her neighbourhood called that the girl had lost her senses.
Q.2. Kisa Gotami goes from house to house to house after she speakas withthe Buddha. What does she ask for the second time around ? Does she get it ? Why not ?
Ans. After seeing Buddha, Gotami visits different houses. she asks for mustard seed. But all replied that the dead were many. So she failed to receive the mustard seed. She could not find a single house without some dead person earlier.
Q.3. What does Kisa Gotami understand the second time that she field to understand the first time ? Was this what the Buddha wanted her to understand ?
Ans. The second time Kisa Gotami understood the fate of man. She relatised that their lives flickered up and extinguished again like light. She considered herself to be selfish in her dream. She knew that death was common to
Q.4. Why do you usually understand the idea of selfishness ? Do u aggery with kisa gotami that she is being selfish in her grief ?
Ans- We generally understand the idea of ”selfishness” with the point of thinking of only our own ends, benifits,perpose,motives and so on. We fail to take a wider perspective of thinking benifits for others.
In this lesson kisa gotami is selfish in her grif. She goes from house to house for the mediciene to save her child but there is no alternative. At the advise of the buddha she again visit but to no result. She tries and she the lights flickering and extinguishing. The visdom prevailos on her. She realises that she is very selfish in her grief.
Q-5- What did buddha she about death and suffring ?
Ans-Buddha said that death is common to all mortals. Those who are born must die one day. You cannot avoid it. Death is certain. As ripe fruit are early in danger of falling, So in the life of mortals. life of a man is like an earthan pot that breaks and meets its end.
No amount of wepping and lamiting can bring back a dead. So, wise men don’t grieve. They understand that it is law of the word.
Weaping and lamenting brings no gains. It rather spoils once health and given more pain. If only you take out the arrow of lamination and get camposed you will get peace of mind. To over come sorrow , became free of sorrow.
LONG QUESTIONS ANSWERS
Q-1 Why did Gotami of from house to house ? In what death was Buddha change her understanding ?
Ans Introduction: Kisa Gotami’s only son died. She carried the dead child to all her neighbours, asking them for medicine . A man advised her to go to Buddha.
She goes to Buddha : Kisa Gotami went to Buddha to get medicine that would cure her son. Buddha asked her to get a handful of mustard-seed from a house where a no one had lost their loved one . So she went from house to house to procure such a seed . But she couldn’t get.
Buddha changes her understanding : Budda made Kisa Gotami realize that the life of mortals is brief and mixed with pain . Those who are born have to die and after the death of a loved one nobody can get peace of mind by grieving and lamenting .
Q-2 Why do you think Kisa Gotami understood this only the second time ? In what way did the Buddha change her undertaning even while she repeated her earlier activity of asking her neighbours for medicine, by changing the questions that she asked them ?
Ans Kisa Gotami could understood the second time that death is common to all . She was selfish in her grief . She change her understending, even while